Organizational Governance & Management

Organizations should develop a way to manage, govern, and enforce accessibility standards, best practices, and law. Remediation and retrofitting is not the answer. Processes organizations should establish and manage:

Integration Management

Accessibility is more than a technical challenge; it’s a process management challenge. Change starts with the establishment of a team of people, who express interest in accessibility, and represent several departments within the organization. Tasks include:

  • identifying the goals and objectives of implementing accessibility;
  • selecting internal standards, best practices, resources and tools needed to incorporate accessibility; and
  • specifying accessibility guidelines and policies for the entire organization.

Web Development Process

Plan. Create. Test. These are the 3 tasks to cycle through during the process of developing a new site/design, new feature, or remediation of a site. Accessibility experts and people with disabilities need to be part of these various stages to ensure quality and usability of the end product.

Plan and design phase includes:

  • research,
  • requirements, and
  • design of information architecture (IA) and user experience (UX).

Create content & components phase includes:

  • creating front-end markup & programming
  • creating text content
  • testing multimedia

Test content and components phase includes:

  • testing markup & programming
  • testing text content
  • testing multimedia

Scope Management

Set clear expectations and milestones for when your project is “done.” Accessibility review is always on-going, but there should be definitive policies about what is acceptable to be pushed to production and what is not. The general categories of accessibility scope are:

  • innovation (new technologies or techniques)
  • new design (new project)
  • retrofitting (fixing existing project by inventory, assess, and prioritize)
  • maintenance (testing updates of project with automation)

Time Management

Best-case scenario says that only 1-5% of development time will be for accessibility efforts. Worst-case scenario paints a more grim picture that accessibility efforts may cost a team 2-3x the usual development time. Sadly, the last scenario happens all-too-often because teams don’t know much about web accessibility, don’t have a process in place, and resort to trial-and-error along the way. Accessibility can cost the team even more time if there are no experts on any level of the organization. To ensure that time is reduced on the accessibility of a project, the following are a must:

  • accessibility expert on staff
  • all team members are educated about accessibility
  • accessibility is embedded in the process
  • accessible patterns and methods are available
  • a flexible development environment
  • automated testing tools

Cost Management

Most of the cost of accessibility will be due to time management decisions. However, there are a few additional items to keep in mind:

  • third-party consultation
  • enterprise-level accessibility software for testing (audits, AT)

Quality Management

During the planning phase, there should be:

  • tests written for accessibility requirements,
  • user stories generated,
  • acceptance criteria to determine achievement of design requirements,
  • bug reporting, and
  • manual testing performed by actual people with disabilities.

Human Resource Management

Not only should teams recruit people with disabilities for testing, but the organization should take it a step further and hire people with disabilities to be on the team. In addition to hiring people with disabilities, organizations should hire accessibility experts that have been trained and certified to evaluate with accessibility in mind. And, to make an even stronger accessibility-minded organization, it’s pivotal to train all team members about accessibility.

Communication Management

Speaking of training all team members, from product manager, to designer, to developer, HR management segues into communication management. Informing the entire team that accessibility is business as usual, and all members are required to have a degree of accessibility knowledge can increase the strength and maturity of the organization’s accessibility policies. Having an accessibility lead on staff, who has power to support continuing education for all staff, adds to that strength.

Risk Management

Risk management is the examination of the organization’s:

  • legal liability,
  • public relations (PR) status, and
  • accountability.

Legal liability is based off of how bad the accessibility issues (barriers and blocks) are for people with disabilities (see Day 84: Strategies and Techniques for Fixing A11y Issues). Each organization may have a higher risk of lawsuit if key actions for their site are not achievable.

Negative PR is worse than no PR. No organization one’s to be cast as a discriminating (implicit or explicit) business.

As for accountability, this is an internal process. Managers and supervisors need to hold staff accountable to accessibility efforts throughout each process.

Procurement Management

As I mentioned in The Many Laws of Accessibility, Part 2: Laws & Regulations, procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services from external sources. Each organization should “try before they buy”. In other words, when outsourcing for services and products, organizations should:

  • only buy accessible products, whether for internal or public use,
  • verify the accessibility claims from the vendor, including asking for and reviewing their VPAT (voluntary product accessibility templates),
  • write accessible outcomes into the contract,
  • verify contractor’s accessibility expertise, and
  • leverage procurement policies to motivate vendors to do better.

Stakeholder Management

Stakeholder management is as simple as considering all the people involved to make an accessible product happen. In best of times, stakeholders may be, but are not be limited to:

  • designers,
  • developers,
  • testers,
  • clients or users, including people with disabilities.

If your organization didn’t follow through with other management items mentioned earlier, then you may be adding lawyers, a person(s) who filed a complaint, and a judge. So, make a list, check it twice, and keep all these people involved throughout the plan, create, and test process.

The End

That’s all, folks! This is the end of my CPACC studying. By the time this has published, I’ll have completed the exam, for better or worse. Follow-up reflections soon to come.

Now it’s time for your journey. Get learning and start today with making the web more accessible!

The Many Laws of Accessibility, Part 2: Laws & Regulations

In this post, I’ll continue my learning about accessibility laws after covering conventions and treaties in Part 1: Conventions & Treaties. I’ll cover:

  • Civil rights laws,
  • Procurement laws, and
  • Technology laws (US & abroad).
2 people in wheelcharis & 2 standing people look on as a man signs a document.
President George Bush signing the Americans With Disabilities Act on July 26, 1990. Photo from Wikimedia Commons.

Civil Rights Laws

Civil rights laws exist to secure equal rights for people with disabilities by requiring most public and private institutions to reduce or eliminate the conditions that disable people from participating independently in the workforce, public services, and digital arenas. Some civil rights laws sprouted from efforts of rehabilitation for disabled veterans. Several countries have moved past defining the generalized rights of humans to target more specific areas, like information and communication technologies (ICT). Civil rights laws provide guidelines on how to meet accessibility, but often they are not actively enforced or monitored. It falls on citizens to file a complaint.

Examples of civil rights laws for people with disabilities, by country:

Procurement Laws

Procurement refers to the process of government entities purchasing goods and services from external sources. Regulations are set into place on procurement, in order to protect the rights of people with disabilities.

Examples of procurement laws (specifically directed at technology purchases) that protect the rights of people with disabilities, by country:

Technology Laws

United States:

States within the US may have their own web accessibility laws, usually applied heavily to government (state, local) and education (K-12, universities).

Around the world

I’m much more familiar with U.S. law (probably because I’m American), but I want to do better and get acquainted with laws in other countries. I broke down the information I learned from Deque by country.

Canada
Country or Region Law Requirements Who must comply
Canada Web Standards for the Government of Canada Includes accessibility, usability, interoperability, and mobile devices Government of Canada
Quebec Standards sur l’accessibilité du Web [Web Accessibility Standards] Modified WCAG Level AA Quebec government
Europe
Country Law Requirements Who must comply
France Référentiel Général d’Accessibilité pour les Administrations (RGAA) [General Accessibility Reference for Administrations] WCAG Level AA Central government & public services
Germany Barrierefreie-Informationstechnik-Verordnung (BITV 2) [Accessible Information Technology Ordinance] Modified WCAG Government
Ireland The Disability Act of 2005 & Code of Practice on Accessibility of Public Services and Information provided by Public Bodies WCAG 1.0 Government
Italy Law 4/2004 (“Stanca” Law)

[Accessibilità siti web]

WCAG Public Sector, Government
Netherlands Aanbestedingswet 2012 [Procurement Act] WCAG Level AA Government
Spain Law 34/2002 [Information Society & E-Commerce Services Act]

Law 51/2003 [Non Discrimination Act]

WCAG 1.0 Level AA Government
South Pacific
Country Law Requirements Who must comply
Australia Disability Discrimination Act WCAG Level AA Government & non-government
New Zealand Human Rights Amendment Act 2001

Web Accessibility Standard 1.1

Web Usability Standard 1.3

WCAG Level AA Private and public for Human Rights;

Government (for web accessibility & usability standards)

Asia
Country/Region Law Requirements Who must comply
Hong Kong Guidelines on Dissemination of Information through Government Websites WCAG Level AA Government
India Indian Web Accessibility Guidelines WCAG Level AA Government
Japan Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) X 8341 Based on WCAG Central and local government

More lists of laws

Conclusion

There is a lot of material to digest here! As I mentioned, the US laws are familiar enough to me, thanks to the past trainings I’ve prepared for co-workers and others. The gist of several of these laws comes down to respecting human rights, and updating some language of these rights to include modern technologies, including the web. The web is for everyone, and we all should have the right to access services that are provided online.

The Many Laws of Accessibility, Part 1: Conventions & Treaties

Say the word “legislation” and my eyes immediately start to glaze over. When laws, preambles, and articles are mentioned, my mind starts to panic. How can I remember this stuff? What does it mean to me, anyway? In 2 posts, I’m going to try to cover some of the important laws that were created for people with disabilities, and a few conventions and treaties that set the groundwork for those laws.

B&W; Woman holds up a huge piece of paper entitled The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Eleanor Roosevelt, committee chair of the Commission on Human Rights, reads the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Photo from the UN Audiovisual Library.

UN Declaration (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

After the tragedies and loss of WWII, people wanted to do better for all humans across the globe. One instance of standing up for human rights was the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris, France on December 10, 1948. The writing of this declaration was tasked in 1946 to the Commission on Human Rights, led by committee chair Eleanor Roosevelt.

This declaration set the foundation of all other human rights laws. It is the most translated document in the world with over 500 translations. Currently, 192 member states of the United Nations (UN) have agreed to abide by the Declaration, and have found ways to incorporate it into their own law.

In 30 articles, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares the fundamental rights of humanity are:

  • life,
  • liberty,
  • equality,
  • spiritual & political freedoms, and
  • social, cultural, economic rights.

Summary of Articles 1-30

  1. Everyone is born free and equal.
  2. Everyone is entitled to the rights listed in the document.
  3. Everyone has a right to life, freedom, and safety.
  4. No one has the right to enslave anyone.
  5. No one has the right to torture or abuse anyone.
  6. Everyone has rights no matter where he or she is.
  7. The law is the same for everyone and everyone is equal before the law.
  8. Everyone’s rights are protected by the law.
  9. No one has the right to place anyone in prison with no good reason or exile anyone from his or her country.
  10. Everyone is entitled to a fair and public trial by an independent party.
  11. Everyone is innocent until proven guilty. Everyone has a right to prove his or her innocence.
  12. Everyone has a right to privacy and protection of his or her name.
  13. Everyone has the right to move within his or her country and travel as he or she wishes.
  14. Everyone has the right to go to another country if he or she fears for safety in his or her own country.
  15. Everyone has the right to a nationality and no one should be deprived of his or her nationality or denied change of nationality.
  16. Everyone has the right to marry and build a family. Marriage should only be entered into with free and full consent of each spouse. Every family has the right to be protected by society and by the State.
  17. Everyone has the right to own property and share property. No one has to right to take or deprive another of his or her property.
  18. Everyone has the right to believe what he or she wants to believe in, the right to religion, and the right to change his or her religion.
  19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
  20. Everyone has the right to assemble together in peace. No one has the right to force another into a group or association.
  21. Everyone has the right to democracy, to participate in his or her government, and the right to choose his or her leaders.
  22. Everyone has the right to social security: housing, education, childcare, medical assistance, and welfare.
  23. Everyone has the right to employment, the right to choose his or her employer, the right to equal compensation, and the right to join a trade union.
  24. Everyone has the right to vacation and holidays with pay from work.
  25. Everyone has the right to food and shelter to maintain a healthy way of living.
  26. Everyone has the right to an education.
  27. Everyone has the right to protect his or her artistic and intellectual creations. No one can copy one’s creations without his or her permission.
  28. Everyone is entitled to proper social order where these rights are fully realized and recognized.
  29. Everyone has a duty to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
  30. No one can take away anyone’s human rights.

Additional reading

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities with Optional Protocol

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) is an international treaty that pushes and monitors national legislation to implement accessibility as a human right for people with disabilities. In other words, the UN CRPD is a binding human rights treaty and serves as a framework for legal advocacy. It was adopted in 2006, and has acquired 163 UN member states signatures and 181 ratifications/accessions. On an American-centric note, the US signed it in 2009, but never ratified it. ☹

In 2008 the Optional Protocol was launched, which implemented the competencies and rights of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to monitor and accept complaints. It strengthened the UN CRPD by giving people with disabilities an additional tool to fight discrimination and exclusion.

The UN CRPD’s 50 articles (not posted in detail here) instruct governments, in regard to people with disabilities, to address the following ideas:

  • communication about & with people with disabilities
  • health care, habilitation, & rehabilitation
  • reasonable accommodation and accessibility
  • assistive technologies
  • access to information and information technology
  • independent living and self-determined decisions
  • personal mobility (buildings, transports, public spaces)
  • social, economic, employment, educational, political, recreational, sport, cultural, and legal activities
  • monitoring and reporting the progress and claiming disrespect by national and international human rights institutions

Additionally, the UN CRPD includes ICT, AT, accessibility, and universal design in most of its articles. Those concepts proved to be a driving force for acceptance of the treaty.

A general overview of the 50 articles of the UN CRPD articles:

  1. Purpose
  2. Definitions
  3. General principles
  4. General obligations
  5. Equality and non-discrimination
  6. Women with disabilities
  7. Children with disabilities
  8. Awareness-raising
  9. Accessibility
  10. Right to life
  11. Situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies
  12. Equal recognition before the law
  13. Access to justice
  14. Liberty and security of person
  15. Freedom of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
  16. Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse
  17. Protecting the integrity of the person
  18. Liberty of movement and nationality
  19. Living independently and being included in the community
  20. Personal mobility
  21. Freedom of expression and opinion, and access to information
  22. Respect for privacy
  23. Respect for home and the family
  24. Education
  25. Health
  26. Habilitation and rehabilitation
  27. Work and employment
  28. Adequate standard of living and social protection
  29. Participation in political and public life
  30. Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport
  31. Statistics and data collection
  32. International cooperation
  33. National implementation and monitoring
  34. Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  35. Reports by States Parties
  36. Consideration of reports
  37. Cooperation between States Parties and the Committee
  38. Relationship of the Committee with other bodies
  39. Report of the Committee
  40. Conference of States Parties
  41. Depository
  42. Signature
  43. Consent to be bound
  44. Regional integration organizations
  45. Entry into force
  46. Reservations
  47. Amendments
  48. Denunciation
  49. Accessible format
  50. Authentic texts

Marrakesh Treaty (MVT)

The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (MVT) was created by WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) and adopted in 2013 in Marrakesh, Morocco. It became legally binding in 2016. The U.S. joined the treaty in 2019 via the S.2559 Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act.

In short, the Marrakesh Treaty allows organizations to convert texts into an accessible and usable format (e.g. braille or audio) for blind, visually impaired, and print disabled without violating copyright.

I can remember when this one when it was first created. I was finishing up library school at the time. There was quite a bit of buzz in the library community about the possibility of an exemption that would widen the access of library materials. It’s amazing to me to see that the US finally joined the treaty this year.

Additional reading

In conclusion

A lot of groundwork has happened to get people talking, thinking, and enforcing the civil rights of people with disabilities. Efforts like these take many people, many perspectives, and time. It began with a global declaration, followed up by global treaties. Next, I’ll approach several civil rights, procurement, and industry-specific laws that have been established across the globe, thanks to the UN Declaration and UN Convention that paved the way toward a more inclusive world.